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Title Short Description
Abbreviations Lead to Confusion Abbreviations used lead to confusion and misunderstanding
Application Incompatible with Screen Reader/Browser Combination Software/applications behave differently on various browsers, can lead to application being accessible on one browser and not another
Buttons/Links Have Labels with Extraneous Characters Extraneous characters make it more difficult to read intended labels
CAPTCHA Lacks Inaccessible Way to Complete Captcha challenge may be fully dependent on sight, or aspects of completing the challenge are not accessible by using only the keyboard
Change in Content without Audible Cue Content changes without any trigger to the screen reader or magnifier to alert the user
Checkboxes/Radio Buttons Improperly Labeled Radio button/check box either lacks a label or is inappropriately labeled
Clickable Elements are not Accessible with a Keyboard User can only access controls with a mouse, instead of both mouse and keyboard
Clickable Elements Behave in an Unpredictable Manner The function of an element should be contextually and easily determinable
Clickable Elements Provide Only Visual Effects Screen reader user clicks on an element but cannot tell if anything happens, because it is purely visual
Color Contrast Does Not Meet Specifications Lack of color contrast makes it difficult or impossible for a user with low vision or color blindness to see all content
Content Appears in Rotating Presentation rotating content displays in a way that is confusing to or cannot be controlled by screen reader user
Content Is Not Keyboard Accessible Information or functions are not fully accessible using only the keyboard
Content Lacks Way for User to Control It Content behaves in a way that makes it difficult for user to control, particularly as a result of the blindness or how assistive technology works
Controls Inconsistently Labeled Controls are labelled differently across pages.
Element Does Not Indicate Its Current State Active state is only indicated visually with no indication to screen reader software
Element does not Indicate User Can Interact with It Screen reader does not recognize that an element is clickable, even though visually it appears clickable
Element Looks Visually Different from How It Behaves for Screen Reader There is inconsistency between how an element appears visually and how it is defined programmatically
Error Text does not Provide Specific Information There is no clear and specific information about the problem when an error is made
Errors in forms do not get focus When there is an error, focus does not change to help correct the error
Excessive Content Is Difficult to Manage Amount of content on page is overwhelming
Expanded/Collapsed State Not Indicated Expanded and collapsed content state not indicated to screen reader
External Document Used in Place of Active Web Application A link leads to a static document, often a PDF, when an active web application would have more functionality
External Documents not Accessible User cannot access all content or complete all tasks contained in external documents
Extraneous Content Interferes with Navigation Content not related to main purpose of page interferes with navigation
Feedback about Errors is not timely A user is not immediately made aware of an error
Fixed/Sticky Menu Bar Interferes with Access to Other Navigation Tools Fixed/sticky menu bars sometimes interfere with ability to see content and to understand relationship of content
Fixed/Sticky Navigation Menu Blocks Text Location of fixed/sticky navigation menu interferes with magnified text
Flow sequence improperly defined Flow sequence defined so that content is provided to screen readers out of order.
Focus changes in form entry Form entry causes an unexpected focus change - sometimes due to page reload
Form Entry Leads to Content Change without Indicating Change Occurred Subsequent options change as result of form entry, but no notification to assistive technology
Form Input Generates New Information without Notification User inputs information into a form field and there is a change in surrounding content, but without audible cue
Google Sheets Lacks Proper Headers Google sheets does not allow user to create proper accessible headers
Graphics/Images Unclearly Labeled or Unlabeled Graphics and images have no or confusing text associated with them
Hamburger/Gear Menus Lack Non Visual Markup Hamburger and gear menus are unidentifiable to a screen reader user
Headings not Properly Nested Headings skip levels or are used for purposes other than what they are intended for
Headings not Used to Provide Structure There are no headings or, heading tags are used inappropriately such as, for visual esthetics
Image without Important Information Appears to a Screen Reader Unimportant graphics have either no alt text or alt text that does not contribute to understanding page content
Impossible to Determine Current Location in Navigation without Vision Information about where user is within navigation is only portrayed visually
Information not structured to reflect critical relationships Information structure is not defined for screen reader to determine relationship
Information Structure Does not Reflect Content Importance Screen reader navigates through content in a different order than visual indicators might suggest a user should, making content confusing or seem out of order
Initial Focus Does not Help with Navigation Initial focus when page loads is on a location other than what a user is likely to want to find
Input/Text Area Form Elements Lack Meaningful Label The input / text area element lacks a label or is improperly labeled
Instructions Based on Visual Information Following instructions depends on a user being able to see color, location, shape, etc.
Interacting with an Element Automatically Selects an Option Content or options change as a result of user interacting with element
Interface Components Are Out of Order There should be a hierarchy of the element followed by information about or actions on it
Link Does Not Exist in Text that Refers to It There is reference to a link elsewhere on the page, but the link should also appear in the text where it is referred to
Link is Unclearly Labeled or Unlabeled There is no or unclear text associated with a link
Link/Button Names Do Not Make Sense Out of Context Information surrounding a link/button is necessary to understand what the link/button does
Lists Improperly Defined Incorrect semantec markup leads to incorrect identification of lists by screen reader
Magnification results in lost content Content becomes inaccessible when display is magnified.
Media Has No Transcript There is no transcript available for visual, audio, or audio/visual media
Media Player Controls are not Keyboard Accessible Screen reader user cannot start, stop, pause, fast forward, rewind, etc. media because of inaccessible controls
Mouse Over Needed to Activate and View Content Mouse over generates image or menu that is impossible or difficult to view because of separation between control and location of content to view
Moving Graphics Challenge Limited Vision Moving graphics interfere with magnifier user’s orientation and movement around the page
Multiple select Menu/List Box Lacks Accessible Markup Multiple select menus/List Boxes have intrinsic navigation issues for a screen reader user
Nested Content Scrolls Windows and frames that scroll can cause navigation challenges and visual disorientation for magnifier users
No Alternative Way to Access Important Content in Visual Media Visual information should appear in alternative forms
Page Refreshes While User Navigates Combo Box Navigating the selections in a combo box with a keyboard leads to unintended page changes
Page Title Does Not Provide Information about Page Content The page lacks a title element
Pop Up Boxes Fill Visible Screen Magnifier user cannot access surrounding content or controls because of relative size of pop up box
Punctuation or Spelling Incorrect Spelling or punctuation errors create confusion
Regions and Landmarks not used to Organize Content Regions or landmarks can provide a useful way for a screen reader user to navigate content and the absence or misuse can make it slower or harder to access content
Related Objects Spaced too Far Apart Magnifier user has trouble finding related objects due to where they are placed
Repetitive or Unnecessary Navigation Required Before Main Content Main content is hidden behind extraneous content
Required Interaction not Predictable A novel way of completing a task or presenting information makes it difficult to figure out the appropriate interaction
Same Link or control Text Goes to Multiple Destinations links to different URL's or controls with different functions have the same text
Screen Reader Causes Adobe Flash Player to Crash Adobe Flash Player crashes when some screen readers are running
Screen Reader Refresh Necessary to Show Content Screen reader does not recognize a change in content until it has been refreshed
Skip to Main Content does not Work or Is Not Used Their either is no "skip to main content" link, or it does not work
Tab Order does Not Make Sense Controls are navigated in illogical order using the tab button
Table Lacks Appropriate Row and Column Headers and/or Proper Table Structure Tables are difficult to read because columns and rows do not have appropriate labels and/or structure
Tables Used for Visual Layout of Non-Tabular Information Tables are used for reasons other than organization, most often visual layout
Tabs not properly defined Tabs not defined and managed as tabs
Text Presented as Image Screen reader cannot read image
Tool Is Confusing to Figure Out and Use Tool lacks adequate instructions or cues for someone to know how or why to use it